Biography of Emperor Ashoka (Life Introduction), History

In the history of India, the description of many powerful and Chakravarti kings comes, one of them belongs to the Maurya dynasty. Emperor Ashoka is also. They are also mentioned in history by the names of Devanampriya and Priyadarshi. Ashoka made the kingdom of Magadha his own, but there were various obstacles in his coronation, which he also faced with strength. Chakravarti king to Ashoka (Samrat Ashok) For this reason, it is said that he did not live in enjoyment and luxury in his rule and used to do bravery continuously. For this reason, he had hoisted his flag of valor from North India to Mysore, Karnataka, Bengal to Afghanistan. In this way, his empire was the most spread empire till that time.

Biography of Emperor Ashoka (Life Introduction), History |  Samrat Ashok History in Hindi, Biography, Story
biography of emperor ashoka

biography of emperor ashoka

Real NameAshok Bindusara Maurya
other namesEmperor Ashoka, Devanampriya, Priyadarshi, Chand Ashoka
Birth304 BCE (estimated), Pataliputra (present day Patna)
Parents Queen, King Bindusara
WifeQueen Padmavati, Tishyaraksha, Queen Devi, Karuvaki
childrenKunal, Mahindra, Sanghamitra, Jaluka, Charumati, Tiwala
death252 BC (Pataliputra)

King Ashoka has been such an emperor of India, like whom there was no emperor in the world, let alone a country. He has been the third king of Mauryan rule and his empire was on almost all the islands from India from 269 to 252 BC. The meaning of the word Ashoka is without sorrow, that is, in which there is no sorrow. Ashoka has got fame in the country as well as in the world for two reasons – firstly, the valor in the battle of Kalinga and the promotion of Buddhism around the world. Ashoka is considered to be very barbaric in his early days and he was ready to do anything to win the war and for the throne. Because of this nature, Ashoka killed even his step brothers. Because of his fierce nature, Ashoka got the name ‘Chand Ashoka’, which means cruel Ashoka.

birth and early life

Ashoka was born in 304 BC to King Bindusara and Dharma of the Maurya dynasty. According to the tradition of Lanka, the description of 16 queens and 101 sons of Bindusara is found. The names of only three of these sons are mentioned – Susim (eldest), Ashoka and Tishya. Once Ashoka’s mother Dharma had a dream of her son Ashoka becoming the emperor. On getting information about this, Bindusara made Dharma his wife, although that woman was not related to any royal family. Ashoka had to face competition from many half-brothers in his life.

After growing up a little, Ashoka’s military skills were visible. Royal training was also arranged to further enhance their fighting skills. In this way, Ashoka had got very good mastery in archery and other necessary war skills at a very young age. Along with this, he was also a hunter of high quality and the art of killing a lion with a stick is also described by him. Seeing his talent, he was also sent to stop the riots in the Avanti of Mauryan rule.

Even after two thousand years of his time, the influence of Ashoka’s kingdom is seen in South Asia. The symbol of Ashoka, which was created during his time, has its place even today in the national symbol of India. In Buddhism, after Lord Buddha, the highest place is given to King Ashoka and his religious works.

Ashoka’s Empire

The name of Ashoka’s wife is mentioned in Divyadaan as ‘Tishyarakshila’. The old text mentions only ‘Karunavaki’ as his wife. In Divyadan, only two brothers of Ashoka have been described – Susim and Vigatashok. Out of this, his elder brother Susim was also the governor of Taxila. At this time, people of Indo-Greek origin lived in large numbers in Taxila. Therefore, this place had become very suitable for rebellion. Susin’s administration was at this place, due to whose bad leadership, a lot of rebellion started to flourish here. On the advice of Susin, King Bindusara entrusted Ashoka with the task of administration at this place. But these people stopped opposing Ashoka without any kind of bloodshed. But after some time Ashoka crushed the protest again by force.

In this way, due to the skill of Ashoka, the fear of the throne was increasing in brother Susin. To stop Ashoka, Susin asked Emperor Bindusara to put Ashoka in exile. After this Ashoka reached Kalinga, where he fell in love with Matyasya Kumari Kaurvaki. Available evidence suggests that she was his second or third queen. Bindusara sent Ashoka from exile to quell the rebellion again. Here his father kept Ashoka’s identity a secret as there was a danger of his assassination by his brother Susin.

Ashok Rocks Amaravati
ashoka carpet statue

Introduction to Buddhism

Similarly, during the days of exile, Ashoka had also spent some days with the Buddhist ascetics. During this time, Ashoka got an opportunity to become familiar with the rules and regulations of Buddhism. It was here that he had a love affair with a beautiful girl ‘Devi’. After some time, Ashok and Devi also got married.

Ashoka gets the throne

After a short time, Ashoka’s father Bindusara had become very old and ill. In this way their influence on the empire also decreased. At such a time, many people were getting very upset with the rule of the elder son Susin. Ashoka started getting the news of this in the Buddhist Vihar itself and troubled people started encouraging Ashoka to occupy the royal throne. Ashoka’s mother was also killed by his step brothers. Enraged by this news, Ashoka killed his half-brothers. As soon as he took the throne, Ashoka started expanding his empire in the east and west. In this way, he extended his empire in present day Assam and Iran in just 8 years.

war of kalinga

Ashoka marched on Kalinga only after eight years of assuming his throne. After ending the internal rebellion there, Ashoka was enthroned in 269 BC. According to the information received from the 13th inscription, 1.50 lakh people were exiled after being captured in the battle of Kalinga. Here 1 lakh people were also killed and 1.50 lakh people were also injured. Ashoka saw all these destruction happening in front of him. After some time passed, the feeling of anguish began to prevail in Ashoka. They went to ask ‘Upagupta’ (Buddhist monk) the solution to their problem.

Ashok Kalinga War
Kalinga war

Ashoka’s religious activities

After being initiated into Buddhism, Ashoka gave priority to public welfare and religion by adopting various religious practices. Along with this, after the completion of ten years of his rule, he also went on a trip to Bodh Gaya. After this, after 14 years of his rule, Ashoka also took initiation of Buddhism from a monk named ‘Nigodh’. Upagupta initiated Ashoka into Buddhism. Due to his religious works, he is now known by the names ‘Devanampriya and Priyadarshi’. In the 20th year of his reign, Ashoka also visited ‘Lumbini’ and declared this city tax-free. During the reign of Ashoka, the third Buddhist association also took place in Pataliputra (Patna), which was presided over by Mowgli’s son Niss. During the lifetime of Ashoka, Buddhist monks started preaching abroad and Ashoka also sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka.


Ashoka Of religious means

  • beginning of pilgrimage
  • appointing state officials
  • Appointing Dharma Mahapatro
  • display divine forms
  • Arranging religious hearing and preaching
  • charity work
  • Excavation of Dharmalipi and construction of inscription
  • preaching abroad

Read also :- Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s life introduction

Edicts of Ashoka

So far 33 inscriptions of Ashoka have been found, which have been engraved by Ashoka in rocks, pillars and caves. All these inscriptions were made by Ashoka from 269 BC to 251 BC. At this time all these inscriptions are present in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan and are living evidence of the existence of Buddhism and Ashoka’s empire.

Ashok Shelalekh


Ashoka’s reign lasted for 36 years and after that he died in about 252 BC.

Stamp of India Samrat Ashoka

Questions related to Emperor Ashoka

Who was Emperor Ashoka?

Ashoka was the most majestic king of India Maurya Empire. His Kalinga war had gained a lot of fame and after this war he also took the initiation of Buddhism.

How many inscriptions were written by Emperor Ashoka?

about 40 inscriptions

How far was the empire of Emperor Ashoka?

Ashoka had established his empire from the continents of India to Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Iraq.

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