History of Peshwas- The Maratha Empire has its own importance in the history of India. The Maratha Empire was a power that established its dominance over the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj in 1674 began with the coronation of Peshwa Bajirao II in 1818 With the defeat of this great empire disappeared. If any empire in India could take on the Mughal Empire, it was the Maratha Empire.
History of the Nawabs of Bengal
Maratha Empire was established by Shivaji Maharaj. He took the initiative to release the Maratha people from the Bijapur Sultanate and freed the Marathas from the captivity of the Mughals. Maratha Empire was started by Shivaji Maharaj in 1674. Today we are going to tell you the history of Peshwas of this great empire. Read the complete article to know the history related to Peshwa, the important post of the Maratha Empire.
During the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, a dictionary was made by him in which the Peshwa has been called Pantpradhan. Peshwa is a Persian word which means “leader”. In the absence of Chhatrapati, the Peshwa used to take charge of the state. After Chhatrapati Maharaj Shivaji, the first Peshwa was Moropant Pingale who was a Deshastha Brahman. Deshastha Brahmans were living in Maharashtra and Karnataka. Peshwa Moropant Pingle had helped Chhatrapati Maharaj Shivaji enable him to Swarajya.
After Moropant Pingle, his son Neelkanth Moreshwar Pingle took over as the Peshwa of Swarajya. Ramchandrapant Amatya was one such person who rendered his service to 5 Chhatrapatis. After Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandrapant Amatya was the youth head of the Ashtapradhan Mandal. Ramchandrapant Amatya was also in the court of Sambhaji Maharaj. He gave his life to save Rajaram Maharaj. Ramchandrapant Amatya also helped Maharani Tarabai and her son Sambhaji Maharaj. Bahir ji Pingle was the younger son of Moropant Pingle. In 1711, when Satara was attacked, Bahir Pingale was imprisoned, whom Chhatrapati Sahu Maharaj Ji ordered Balaji Vishwanath to free him from captivity. From 1711 to 1713, Balakrishna Vasudev contributed to the maintenance of the Maratha Empire.
Peshwa’s reign (1714 to 1818)
- Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa (1714-1720)
- First Bajirao Peshwa (1720-1740)
- Balaji Bajirao Peshwa alias Nanasaheb Peshwa (1740 -1761)
- Madhavrao Ballal Peshwa alias Thorley Madhavrao Peshwa (1761-1772)
- Narayanrao Peshwa (1772-1774)
- Raghunathrao Peshwa (for some time)
- Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (1774-1796)
- Second Bajirao Peshwa (Bajirao II) (1796 -1818)
- Second Nanasaheb Peshwa (Could not sit on the throne)
Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa (1714-1720)
- Balaji Vishwanath was appointed to the post of Peshwa by Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj in 1713.
- They belonged to a Brahmin family and the Maratha Empire came under their control around the 18th century.
- Balaji Vishwanath 1714-1720 He was the first Peshwa (prime minister) of the Maratha Empire.
- The name of the wife of Balaji Vishwanath was Radhabai, Gulvati. And his sons were Bajirao I, Chimaji Appa, Bhiubai Joshi, Anubai Ghorpade.
- Balaji Vishwanath was popularly known as Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath.
- 1719 AD Treaty of Delhi It took place between Sayyid Hussain Ali and Balaji Vishwanath on behalf of the Mughal emperor.
- According to the Delhi treaty, the Mughal emperor Rafi-ud-Darjat had ordered Chhatrapati Shahuji to settle Chauth and Sardeshmukhi in the southern part.
- Richard Temple called the Treaty of Delhi in 1719 AD as the Magna Carta (Great Charter) of the Marathas.
- Balaji Vishwanath is also called the second founder of the Maratha Empire as he regained the lost power of the Maratha Empire after the Mughal invasion.
First Bajirao Peshwa (1720-1740)
- After the death of Balaji Vishwanath, his son Bajirao I was assigned the post of Peshwa.
- The wife of Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa was Kashibai, Mastani.
- His sons were Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), Raghunathrao, Shamsher Bahadur, Janardan Rao.
- During his time the Maratha Empire expanded very rapidly.
- It was he who propagated the Hindu post padshahi and popularized it.
Treaty of Mungi Shivagaon , 1728 AD
- In March 1728 AD, Bajirao I defeated the Nizam in a battle near Palkheda and between the Nizam and Bajirao I Treaty of Mungi Shivagaon Happened.
- Under this treaty, it was accepted by the Nizam to pay Chauth and Sardeshmukhi type of tax to Chhatrapati Shahuji.
- In 1728 AD, Bundela king Chhatrasal sought help from Bajirao I, Bajirao I helped him and recaptured all the area conquered by the Mughals.
- Bundela king Chhatrasal married his daughter Mastani to Bajirao I on this occasion of happiness, after getting the help of Bajirao I in this war, after getting the lost areas in the war.
- In 1738, for the expansion of his empire, Bajirao I included Gujarat in his empire.
Balaji Bajirao Peshwa (Nanasaheb) (1740 -1761)
- Balaji Bajirao Peshwa is also known as Nana Saheb.
- Balaji Bajirao was appointed Peshwa by Shahu in 1740 after the death of his father Bajirao I.
- Balaji Bajirao Peshwa (Nanasaheb) was the third Peshwa of the Chitpavan Brahmin clan.
- In 1741, Raja Raghuji Bhosale of Nagpur and Berar was prepared by him for the Bengal campaign.
- 1757-58 During his tenure, the Maratha Empire had reached Attock, Pakistan including Delhi.
third battle of panipat ,14 January 1761 AD
- At the time of Balaji Bajirao Peshwa (Nanasaheb) 14 January 1761 AD The Third Battle of Panipat was fought between the Marathas/Peshwas and Ahmad Shah Abdali, the Afghan ruler.
- Balaji Bajirao died in 1761 AD due to being badly defeated in the third battle of Panipat.
Madhavrao Ballal Peshwa (Thorley Madhavrao Peshwa) – 1761-1772
- Balaji Bajirao Peshwa (Nanasaheb) 1761 After his death in Madhavrao Ballal ,Madhavrao I Peshwa holds the post.
- Madhavrao I To Thorley Madhavrao Peshwa Also known by name.
- Peshwa Madhavrao I forced the Nizam of Hyderabad and Hyder Ali of Mysore to pay Chauth.
- Peshwa Madhavrao died in 1772 AD due to Chhayarog (TV).
- Peshwa Madhavrao I is considered the last great Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.
- Historians consider Madhav Rao to be the greatest Peshwa.
Madhav Narayanrao Peshwa (1772-1774)
- Peshwa Madhav Narayan was the youngest son of Narayan Rao.
- The Maratha Empire had weakened during his time.
- Peshwa Madhav Narayanrao was very young when he was appointed Peshwa.
- Due to his young age, a council was formed by the Peshwa chiefs under the leadership of Nana Fadnavis to look after the state. Bara Bhai Sabha was known as.
- In 1774, Mahadji Scindia and Nana Fadnavis continued to work with mutual cooperation, but at the last moment there was a mutual conflict between them, due to which the Maratha Empire collapsed.
- Mahadji Scindia died in 1794 and after his death, Nana Fadnavis had a monopoly in the Maratha Empire.
- Nana Fadnavis, not being a Peshwa, used all the work and powers of the Peshwa.
- Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (Madhavrao II) committed suicide in 1796, fed up with the arbitrary procedures of Nana Fadnavis in the Maratha Empire.
Second Bajirao Peshwa (Bajirao II) (1796 -1818)
- Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (Madhavrao II) committed suicide in 1796 after which Raghoba’s son Bajirao II was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in 1796.
- Bajirao II is also known as the fugitive Bajirao.
- during his reign Second and Third Anglo-Maratha War happened.
Treaty of Basin – December 1802 AD,
- In December 1802, the Treaty of Basin was signed between Bajirao II and the British.
- And the main conditions of this treaty were as follows –
- Peshwa Bajirao II accepted the protection of the British and gave his approval to keep an English army in Poona
- Gujarat, the region of the Tapti and Narmada rivers and the region around the Tungabhadra river Treaty of Basin given to the British under
- The British accepted Bajirao II as Peshwa.
Fall of Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire was the most prosperous and dominating empire in South Asia in the 18th century. The Maratha Empire also came into existence in 1674 when Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was coronated. this empire 1818 In Bajirao II The Anglo-Maratha war that took place during the year ended with the defeat at the hands of the British.
The main reason for the defeat of the Marathas was mutual differences and mutual conflict. In the race to acquire Peshwai, the Maratha Empire kept becoming hollow inside. After the death of the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb in 1707, Shahu Maharaj, who was the grandson of Chhatrapati Shivaji, was freed from the captivity of the Mughals. There were many differences between the family in the empire to become the ruler, due to these reasons, after the release of Shahu Maharaj, Shahuji had a conflict with his aunt, Maharani Tarabai, but Shahu ji was victorious in this struggle. After which Balaji Vishwanath was appointed by Shahu ji and after that his descendants were appointed to the post of Peshwa.
end of empire
The Maratha Empire extended from Attock to Cuttack in the north and from Gujarat to Bengal. Bajirao II The British East India Company took power in Bengal after defeating the Nawab of Bengal during the 12th century AD. After which his eyes fell on the northern region of India, where Maratha had control over most of the areas.
In 1803, the Maratha army of the English forces was defeated in the ‘Battle of Delhi’. After which the British army was led by Arthur Wellesley in the Second Anglo-Maratha War which took place from 1803 to 1805, in this war the Marathas again had to face defeat. In which the Marathas had to accept the terms of the British treaty. Third Anglo-Maratha War During (1817 – 1818 AD), Peshwa Baji Rao II was defeated by the British and the Maratha Empire came to an end.
Major Wars and Treaties
- Second Anglo-Maratha War1803 – 1805 AD.
- Treaty of Devgaon – December 1803 AD (between Bhonsle and British)
- Treaty of Surji Arjan Village -December 1803 AD (occurred between Scindia and the British)
- Third Anglo-Maratha War –1817 – 1818 AD
- Treaty of Poona- 13 June 1817 AD (between Bajirao II and the British)
- Battle of Bhima Koregaon- 1 January 1818 AD (between Peshwa and English army)
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is the founder of the Maratha Empire.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was coronated in 1674.
The First Anglo-Maratha War took place in 1775 -1782.
The First Anglo-Maratha War ended with the Treaty of Salbai.
The Second Anglo-Maratha War took place in 1803 -1805.
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